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Understanding acoustic methods for cement bond logginga)

Hua Wang, Guo Tao, Xuefeng Shang

J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., vol: 139, num: 5, 2407, published: 01 May 2016,

Abstract: Well cementation is important for oil/gas production, underground gas storage, and CO2 storage, since it isolates the reservoir layers from aquifers to increase well integrity and reduce environmental footprint. This paper analyzes wave modes of different sonic/ultrasonic methods for cement bonding evaluation. A Two dimensional finite difference method is then used to simulate the wavefield for the ultrasonic methods in the cased-hole models. Waveforms of pulse–echo method from different interfaces in a good bonded well are analyzed. Wavefield of the pitch–catch method for free casing, partial or full bonded models with ultra-low density cement are studied. Based on the studies, the modes in different methods are considered as follows: the zero-order symmetric Leaky–Lamb mode (S0) for sonic method, the first-order symmetric Leaky–Lamb mode (S1) for the pulse–echo method, and the zero-order anti-symmetric Leaky–Lamb mode (A0) for the pitch–catch method. For the sonic method, a directional transmitter in both the azimuth and axial directions can generate energy with a large incidence angle and azimuth resolution, which can effectively generate S0 and break out the azimuth limitation of the conventional sonic method. Although combination of pulse–echo and pitch–catch methods can determine the bonding condition of the third interface for the ultra-low density cement case, the pitch–catch cannot tell the fluid annulus thickness behind casing for the partial bonded cased-hole.

      Acoustical measurements.
         Acoustical control in technology.